New article published about Marine Zoning for the Marine Plan Partnership

Marine zoning for the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) in British Columbia, Canada is a new article published in the journal, Marine Policy, in February 2023. 

 The authors of the paper are Charlie Short, Joanna L Smith, John Bones, Steve Diggon, Aaron Heidt, Chris Mcdougall, and Kylee A  Pawluk.


A zoning framework was developed for the Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast (MaPP) in order to provide guidance for decisions regarding coastal and marine economic development, marine resource management, and marine protection or conservation across the MaPP region, the Northern Shelf Bioregion, British Columbia, Canada. The MaPP Zoning Framework was developed over an 18-month period at the beginning of the marine spatial planning (MSP) process with stakeholder consultation and incorporated lessons learned from other planning efforts in British Columbia and globally. The three main requirements for the Framework included that it was applicable and flexible for use across the MaPP regional boundary, which included four sub-regions that had diverse priorities and marine activities, that guiding principles for zoning would provide consistency for policy and other decisions within the MaPP regions, and that zone categories synergized with existing policy and legislation. A stakeholder advisory process was used to develop the Framework which resulted in three zone categories to achieve the goals of MaPP: Protection Management Zone (PMZ), Special Management Zone (SMZ), and General Management Zone (GMZ). Zone identification included numerous factors such as species and habitat diversity, cultural values, existing uses and activities, and priorities for sustainable economic development and conservation. The Framework was effectively used to zone 102,000 km2 of the MaPP region during the MSP process for more than 15 different sectors that were within the scope of the MaPP partners’ jurisdiction. Importantly, the Framework was successfully adapted across the four distinct MaPP sub-regions and consistently applied for an effective regional approach to decision making and management for both First Nations and provincial governments.

Map of the MaPP study area showing the four sub-regions (Haida Gwaii, North Coast, Central Coast, and North Vancouver Island) and the zones developed using the Framework during the planning process.

Kelp Monitoring Training Videos: Strength in Data Diversity

A series of kelp monitoring training videos has been produced.

Learn the approach MaPP First Nation Partners are using to study canopy kelp (the uppermost layer of a kelp forest) in the MaPP Region. First Nations are applying a standardized methodology to collect and analyze data in the four sub-regions to find out:

  1. Where the kelp is;
  2. How kelp is changing;
  3. What is causing the kelp to change; and
  4. What else is affected by these changes to kelp.

With canopy kelp functioning as a canary in the coalmine, research is necessary to address the First Nations’ observations that significant declines have occurred in recent years in the distribution, abundance and quality of kelp in their territories. The training videos were produced in collaboration with the Tula Foundation and feature tools, techniques and protocols being used to support standardized kelp monitoring in the MaPP region. The methods shown in the videos are accompanied by a detailed Kelp Monitoring Methods protocol document.

Together with community-based local and Indigenous knowledge, MaPP is generating a bigger picture of kelp historically, today and for future scenarios, as illustrated in our Regional Kelp Monitoring Storymap. As culturally and ecologically significant species, kelp conservation and restoration are essential for food, habitat, improved shoreline protection and increased marine nutrients. Kelp monitoring information, therefore, will be used to inform future management recommendations about protected areas, ecosystem health and marine use.

View the video playlist here.

A Decade of Collaborative Marine Planning

On June 1, Nature United hosted a celebration for the 10-year anniversary of the world’s first co-led marine planning effort with Indigenous Peoples.


MaPP 10 year celebration, group shot. June 1, 2022. © Allison Penko

When people come together under a common vision, they can accomplish wonderful things. And the Marine Plan Partnership—or MaPP—is truly a wonderful thing.

The truth is, I’m not sure many people fully appreciate just how significant it is to have 17 different First Nations working collaboratively with a crown government to advance ecosystem-based management. MaPP has been successfully doing this for 10 years.

It’s unprecedented. It’s something we should celebrate. It’s something that should be supported into the future.

Building on the world-renowned agreements for conservation and land use in the Great Bear Rainforest and Haida Gwaii, the Province of British Columbia and 17 First Nations collaboratively developed the world’s first collaborative large-scale marine planning initiative.

A Shining Example

Ten years later, MaPP is still a leading partnership model for governments working together on complex collaborative marine spatial planning. Integrating healthy ecosystems, economies and people, this partnership represents the kind of conservation that’s possible through bold collaboration.

It was wonderful to have the chance to celebrate this milestone in person. On June 1, 2022 Nature United hosted an event where First Nations MaPP partners from up and down the coast came together with B.C. government MaPP partners to celebrate 10 years of working together. The celebratory energy in the room was palpable.

“This partnership is a shining example of how First Nations and the provincial government collaborate to find solutions to difficult problems, all in the interest of maintaining the health of coastal marine ecosystems and fostering sustainable development opportunities,” said Minister of Land, Water and Resource Stewardship Josie Osborne in remarks at the event. “The partnership is strengthened by everyone who contributes to its ongoing development.”

CELEBRATORY ENERGY During a celebration of the 10 year anniversary of the Marine Plan Partnership, a performance by the Numwayut Culture Group welcomed the attendees. © Allison Penko


BOLD COLLABORATION Placards highlighting the key outcomes of the Marine Plan Partnership. © Allison Penko

Modeling Reconciliation

MaPP has been, and continues to be an important model and success story—one that  First Nations and the government of B.C. can look to as they move forward on reconciliation and implementing B.C.’s Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People’s Act.

In 2021, MaPP received an inaugural British Columbia Reconciliation Award, which celebrates exceptional leadership, integrity, respect, and commitment to furthering reconciliation with Indigenous peoples in B.C.

MaPP is in fact the world’s first co-led Marine Spatial Plan between Indigenous Governments and Crown Governments. Since it was signed, it has provided inspiration to other countries developing marine plans with Indigenous peoples in places like New Zealand, Indonesia and Costa Rica.

Jenn Burt of Nature United hosted the MaPP 10-year celebration. © Allison Penko

MaPP is in fact the world’s first co-led Marine Spatial Plan between Indigenous Governments and Crown Governments.
Marine Program Lead

The collaborative governance structure and planning frameworks of MaPP are considered a “global gold standard” for marine planning.

Global Impact

Working for an organization that is a global leader in Marine Spatial Planning, I can convey that the benefits of MaPP extend well beyond the boundaries of B.C.

The collaborative governance structure and planning frameworks of MaPP are considered a “global gold standard” for marine planning.

Recently my global colleague was speaking with the president of Palau and a high minister of the Marshall Islands in the western central Pacific. They are interested in regional marine planning, but feel challenged by the multiple countries, governments, and priorities within the prospective planning region. My colleague suggested that a model existed to overcome these challenges—and she pointed to MaPP.

In MaPP, individual marine use plans were developed within four separate subregions, each with different and multiple governments, cultures, and priorities for their marine space. But they are unified under a Regional Action Framework, which outlines the collective vision, overarching priorities, a pathway for working together.

Looking Forward

We all know that we need to protect the land, air and water that we rely on to survive and thrive and that this needs to be done by working in partnership with the Indigenous Peoples who have been stewards of this land since time immemorial.

Year after year, the results of MaPP are influencing  decisions about B.C.’s coast and coastal waters and in doing so are improving the alignment of marine uses with First Nations’ values and vision for their territories.

I’m very proud to be supporting this awesome achievement, and look forward to what the future of MaPP will bring.

Thanks to Jenn Burt, British Columbia Marine Program Lead, Nature United | June 08, 2022 | Source


MaPP Launches the Kelp StoryMap

First Nation and provincial partners of the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) are excited to announce the launch of an innovative communication tool, Regional Kelp Monitoring on the North Pacific Coast: A Community-Based Monitoring Initiative to Inform Ecosystem-Based Management, a StoryMap, to share information about their ongoing work to learn about kelp in Haida Gwaii, the North Coast, Central Coast, and North Vancouver Island.

Because kelp is such an important component of the marine ecosystem – culturally, economically, and ecologically – MaPP developed a Regional Kelp Monitoring Project. Each summer since 2017, Guardians have mapped the extent of kelp beds, collected data on kelp density, and assessed the condition of the kelp. The data can be used to inform kelp management as well as other research both locally and globally such as studies on the impacts of climate change.

Visit Regional Kelp Monitoring on the North Pacific Coast: A Community-Based Monitoring Initiative to Inform Ecosystem-Based Management, a StoryMap to learn about the importance of kelp, the MaPP kelp monitoring framework including how kelp is monitored, sub-regional highlights, collaborators supporting data collection, lessons learned, and the vision for the future. Some unique elements of the StoryMap include the First Nations names for different species of kelp, stories from each of the sub-regions about the focus and achievements of the Guardian crews, along with maps and research results.

The StoryMap is expected to be updated annually to share the most recent findings and accomplishments.

The Nature of Things features the work of NVI Guardians

A recent episode of The Nature of Things on CBC features First Nation Guardians of the MaPP North Vancouver Island Sub-region.

Titled Ice and Fire: Tracking Canada’s Climate Crisis, the documentary describes how citizen science and community-based research is being used to assess how climate change is impacting different parts of Canada. Off the coast of Vancouver Island, First Nations have partnered with the Hakai Institute to monitor and understand the impacts of climate change on kelp. The Tlowitsis and Wei Wai Kum Guardians discuss the MaPP kelp monitoring program, which is also being implemented by Guardian crews in Haida Gwaii, the North Coast and Central Coast sub-regions.

In Knight Inlet, on the BC mainland coast, Dallas Smith, president of Nanwakolas Council, describes salmon habitat restoration efforts to counter the impacts of forestry and climate change, in order to increase salmon populations, and to help grizzly bears survive in the inlet. Guardians of the Da’naxda’xw and Awaetlala First Nations are featured in this work.

Watch the 45-minute documentary by clicking here.

MaPP featured in latest Coastal Zone Canada Newsletter

We are pleased to announce that the Winter 2022 issue of THE ZONE, the newsletter of the Coastal Zone Canada Association, features a comprehensive overview of the Marine Plan Partnership, titled On the MaPP. The article, authored by Berry Wijdeven (provincial co-lead for the Haida Gwaii and North Coast Marine Plans), was written for an international audience of marine planning practitioners and students.

Coastal Zone Canada is an organization that facilitates the sharing of research, policy, news and management of coastal habitats all over the world. Its biennial conferences attract hundreds of attendees who exchange information about their programs and forge new collaborations to improve Integrated Coastal Zone Management practices across the globe.

Read On the MaPP here:

MaPP Selected as a UNESCO Ocean Decade Project

The Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) is pleased to confirm it has been endorsed as a UNESCO Ocean Decade project. This is a unique opportunity to partner with scientists and policy makers around the world to address the decline in ocean health and to support the sustainable development of the ocean.

MaPP was recognized as a project that can support the Ocean Decade mission to “catalyse transformative ocean science solutions for sustainable development, connecting people and the ocean, in order to achieve the Ocean Decade vision of the science we need for the ocean we want” (UNESCO).

The Ocean Decade runs from 2021-2030. During the next decade, MaPP Partners intend to participate with international scientists and stakeholders from diverse sectors to develop scientific knowledge and forge partnerships to advance ocean science.

Features of the MaPP initiative that qualified it for the status of Ocean Decade project include our initiative’s commitment to ecosystem-based management, that it is a co-led approach by First Nations and B.C., the inclusion of stakeholders and local governments in the planning process and implementation of marine plans, the focus on sustainability, the vast geographic area covered, and the already-established collaborations with other researchers.

Leaders of the MaPP initiative look forward to exploring opportunities in support of the vision of the Ocean Decade.

For more information, visit


New article published about stakeholder and public engagement to develop the MaPP marine plans

Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast: Engagement and communication with stakeholders and the public, is a new article published in the journal, Marine Policy, in July 2021.

The authors of the paper are Gord McGee, Josie Byington, John Bones, Sally Cargill, Megan Dickinson, Kelly Wozniak and Kylee Pawluk.

A key requirement for success in marine spatial planning is a meaningful stakeholder engagement process. During the planning phase of the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) initiative, the Partners (the B.C. provincial and 18 First Nations governments) employed, what was termed, an advisory approach to engagement. This advisory approach committed the Partners to engage meaningfully with stakeholders and the public, consider their feedback, work towards balanced solutions, and incorporate what was found to be agreeable. However, it did not require a consensus among participants in order for advice to be accepted or acted upon. Planning occurred over a three-year period in four sub-regions encompassing 102,000 square kilometers of coastal and marine waters on the North Pacific Coast of Canada. Engagement spanned more than 10 sectors of special interest and 22 coastal communities throughout the planning area and included interested members of the general public. Upon plan completion, there was broad stakeholder support for the final sub-regional plans and the Regional Action Framework. The purpose of this paper is to describe from the MaPP governance partners’ perspective, the components of the MaPP advisory-based stakeholder engagement policy and key lessons learned about the factors contributing to the success of its approach. The paper draws upon analysis of MaPP Partner discussions and reflections during and after the planning process, and includes the results of an internal evaluation of stakeholder engagement by independent consultants who surveyed the MaPP team, stakeholders, and the public.


North Coast Sub-region Marine Planning Advisory Committee and MaPP Team members (photo credit: Gilian Dusting)

A Family of Graduates

Nanwakolas Guardians Graduation 2021. Photo credit: Angela Davidson.

Nanwakolas Council Guardians Graduation 2021. (Photo credit: Angela Davidson)

Nanwakolas Council recently published an article describing the graduation of students from the Vancouver Island University Stewardship Technician Training Program. Since 2016, the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) has supported the Nanwakolas Guardian program to implement objectives and strategies in the NVI Marine Plan.

Collaboration Advances Cumulative Effects Management on North Coast

Warren Bolton, photo credit Quinton Ball

DEVELOPING LOCAL EXPERTISE: Warren Bolton, a Kitsumkalum band member, GIS technician, and drone operator, undertakes eelgrass survey work near Ridley Island on the North Coast. Bolton’s involvement with MaPP’s CE project dovetailed perfectly with formal studies in the sciences. Photo credit: Quinton Ball

Marine plan implementation on the North Coast is getting a boost thanks to collaboration between the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) and the North Coast Environmental Stewardship Initiative (ESI) —a B.C. government initiative that was created to address First Nations’ environmental concerns around resource development.

In 2017, the two groups informally merged into one team to accomplish a shared goal: Technically build out and fully implement a cumulative effects framework to monitor, assess, and manage the impacts of industrial and non-industrial development on the North Coast. Cumulative effects are the changes in environmental, social, economic, health and cultural values as a result of the combined effect of present, past and reasonably foreseeable human actions or natural events (MaPP, 2016). The project team includes representation from North Coast First Nations (Gitga’at, Gitxaala, Haisla, Kitselas, Kitsumkalum, and Metlakatla) and the Province of B.C.

A convergence of MaPP and ESI work on cumulative effects on the North Coast began in 2015. MaPP had already begun implementing its North Coast Marine Plan. Federal agencies (such as Environment and Climate Change Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the Impact Assessment Agency of Canada) and provincial resource ministries (such as the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Low Carbon Innovation and the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development) were responding to the need for cumulative effects monitoring and deeper involvement of First Nations in decisions about coastal development projects—particularly, liquefied natural gas. With so many of the same people involved in related discussions, it made sense to bring them together.

Maya Paul, Program Director of Cumulative Effects Strategic Initiatives for the North Coast-Skeena First Nations Stewardship Society, co-manages the integrated MaPP and ESI North Coast Cumulative Effects Program. According to Paul, a key consideration for the North Coast Nations’ engagement in monitoring and assessment projects was their desire for the work to lead to decision-making and action. “North Coast First Nations knew cumulative effects were important but were approaching it independently. They knew they needed to work together, and with other governments, to achieve stronger and more meaningful outcomes.”

Team members are thoughtfully incorporating relevant learnings to support monitoring, assessment, and management of cumulative effects on core values of common importance. They’re currently focused on four values that were prioritised as a starting point: Aquatic Habitats (Estuaries, with a focus on the Skeena Estuary); Salmon; Food Security (with a focus on harvested foods); and Access to Resources (for social and cultural uses). Rebecca Martone, a provincial marine biologist on the North Coast Cumulative Effects project team, notes how important it is to assess interconnected indicators for the values they’re working on. “By developing and selecting indicators in parallel for habitats, key species, cultural values, and human wellbeing, we really start to understand the complexities in the methodologies required to assess cumulative effects, and how indicators can inform more than one value and thus create efficiencies for how those factors are considered in decision-making.”

Marine biodiversity photo credit Maya Paul

MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN THE NORTH COAST: Abalone, otherwise known as sea snails, are a species at risk of extinction and are just one of many marine species that rely on healthy kelp forests in the North Coast. Photo credit: Maya Paul

Continued effort and dedication of team members has resulted in steady progress on each of the values. For example, a North Coast data management system has been developed to enable project team members to contribute, house, aggregate, analyze, and visualise a wide range of regional monitoring data to support decision-making. In addition to identifying a suite of indicators for the Aquatic Habitats (Estuaries) and Food Security & Access to Resources values, the Project Team has developed protocols that will set the procedures and standards for conducting assessments of the condition of the value now and in the future. They’ve developed a suite of indicators and implemented a survey to gather insights from North Coast First Nations community members on the Food Security & Access to Resources values. Quinton Ball, a Terrace-based environmental scientist contracted by Kitsumkalum Nation, explains: “Good indicators should serve as meaningful metrics that can be used to measure and understand change and enable affordable collection of standardised data that are useful for a variety of purposes.” Adds Ball, “Good indicators reveal important changes before we notice them.”

A current condition assessment of the Skeena Estuary value and a cumulative effects assessment of Food Security & Access to Resources values were completed in early 2021, which led to the development of a suite of interim recommendations that the team has begun to implement this year. A field monitoring project, designed to support assessment of the Skeena estuary, is now into its fifth year. The field program has realized many accomplishments, including training and engaging First Nations technicians in the marine environment, leveraging and building capacity in First Nations’ stewardship offices and improving the effectiveness of monitoring by utilising local knowledge in the design of the program. This has resulted in the collection of four years of data to serve as a beginning baseline for assessments. The team has also framed the scope of the initial assessment of the salmon value and began work on it at the end of 2020.

Heather Johnston, with the Environmental Stewardship Initiative Branch of the Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Low Carbon Innovation, co-manages the integrated Cumulative Effects program. She feels the project’s value extends far beyond the North Coast region. “It’s part of implementing the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, where First Nations have a real say in what’s going on in their traditional territories.”

Members of the North Coast Cumulative Effects Project team speak highly of each other’s qualifications and commitment to the work. “The level of professionalism and desire among agencies to collaborate—I just don’t think it’s been done at this level before,” says Ball. And Ball loves seeing new passions for science ignited among First Nations community members who get involved in monitoring work and then go on to explore science-related careers.

Development in NC photo credit Maya Paul

DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH COAST: Sustainable economic development in the North Coast is just one of the priorities being addressed through collaborative efforts between the Province of B.C. and several North Coast First Nations, through the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) and the North
Coast Environmental Stewardship Initiative (ESI). Photo credit: Maya Paul

MaPP Receives British Columbia Reconciliation Award

On April 26, 2021, the Marine Plan Partnership received the British Columbia Reconciliation Award.



The Office of the Lieutenant Governor and the BC Achievement Foundation Announce Inaugural Reconciliation Award Recipients

 The Office of the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, in partnership with the BC Achievement Foundation, is honoured to announce the recipients of the inaugural British Columbia Reconciliation Award. The award recognizes nine extraordinary individuals and organizations who have demonstrated exceptional leadership, integrity, respect, and commitment to furthering Reconciliation with Indigenous peoples in the province of British Columbia, or inspired others to continue Reconciliation efforts.

Individual Recipients:

  • Dawn Drummond
  • Doris Paul
  • Corey Payette
  • Grand Chief Stewart Phillip
  • David Suzuki
  • Corporal Christopher Voller

Organization Recipients:

  • Carrier Sekani Family Services
  • Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast
  • xaȼqanaǂ ʔitkiniǂ (Many Ways of Doing the Same Thing) Research Team

“Being part of establishing the Reconciliation award program and serving on the inaugural selection committee has been heart-warming and empowering. Reviewing all the nominations has shown me the power of Reconciliation and how it can change people and community’s lives for the better.” said BC Achievement Foundation board member Kekinusuqs, Judith Sayers. “It shows we can live together and achieve great things if there are willing people working towards a vision of Reconciliation.” The BC Achievement Foundation has several established programs honouring excellence and inspiring achievement throughout British Columbia, including the Indigenous Business Award and the Fulmer Award in First Nations Art.

“The inaugural recipients of this award are shining examples of those in British Columbia who have demonstrated the many approaches to furthering Reconciliation through meaningful action. It is humbling and inspiring to read of their stories, their incredible impacts in their communities, and to learn from their perspectives on Reconciliation. I am deeply honoured to have the opportunity to partner with the BC Achievement Foundation and the selection committee to develop this award and to recognize these exemplary individuals,” says Austin, “Reconciliation must take root in our hearts, within families, between generations, and throughout our communities. I invite all British Columbia to join us in celebrating these champions, to learn from their stories, and to strive to build relationships with each other across cultures.”

The Honourable Janet Austin, Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, has chosen Reconciliation as one of the key priorities of her mandate. This commitment includes participation in promotion of public awareness of the ongoing journey of Reconciliation.

The British Columbia Reconciliation Award draws inspiration from the work of the Honourable Steven Point [Xwĕ lī qwĕl tĕl], 28th Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, and a founder of the Award. His hand-carved red cedar canoe, Shxwtitostel, currently on display at the BC Legislature buildings, was created as a symbol of reconciliation, with the understanding that “we are all in the same canoe” and must “paddle together” to move forward. In honour of this legacy, this year’s recipients will receive a print of a canoe paddle painted to commemorate the award by Kwakwaka’wakw artist Cole Speck.

The selection committee for the 2021 British Columbia Reconciliation Award, including representation from Indigenous Elders and leadership, is:

  • T’esóts’en, Patrick Kelly – Leq’á:mel First Nation
  • Nicole McLaren – Métis Nation
  • Chief Sophie Pierre – Ktunaxa Nation
  • Kekinusuqs, Judith Sayers – Hupacasath First Nation
  • T,lalisam, Kim van der Woerd – ’Namgis First Nation

Members of the selection committee, along with the Honourable Steven Point, led in the creation and design of the BC Reconciliation Award, ensuring the award was founded on the principles of Indigenous culture and knowledge.


New article about the Marine Plan Partnership

“The Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast – MaPP: A collaborative and co-led marine planning process in British Columbia” is an article published in the journal Marine Policy in June 2020.

The authors of the paper are Steve Diggon, John Bones, Charlie Short, Joanna Smith, Megan Dickinson, Kelly Wozniak, Karen Topelko and Kylee Pawluk.

Abstract: For more than a decade, marine spatial planning has been used around the world to advance objectives for conservation, economic development, and ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) in British Columbia began with the development of land use plans in the 1990s to address coastal and land use issues related to terrestrial land management. Managing marine resources is challenging on Canada’s Pacific coast because of multiple, overlapping jurisdictions, unceded indigenous territories, and lack of coordination amongst governments in the region and their agencies. The Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast (MaPP) was formed in 2011 and was a co-led partnership between 18 First Nations’ and the Province of British Columbia governments. The purpose of the MaPP Initiative was to develop and implement marine plans for 102,000 square kilometers of coastal and offshore water in northern British Columbia. A co-led governance framework included the member First Nations and the Provincial government structured into multiple levels of decisions making, conflict resolution, and technical support. Integral to the planning process was broad and continual stakeholder engagement through multiple advisory committees as well as public engagement. The planning process made use of multiple information sources including traditional, scientific, and local knowledge and was completed in 3.5 years. The result was the development and signing into policy of four sub-regional marine plans (one for each of the four MaPP sub-regions: Haida Gwaii, North Coast, Central Coast, and North Vancouver Island) and a Regional Action Framework. The sub-regional plans delineate protection, special, and general management zones for multiple objectives and will inform future policy decisions for marine protected areas, tenures, resource management and coastal development through an EBM approach. The plans will inform permits for marine tenures including aquaculture, offshore renewable energy siting, contribute to Canada’s marine protected areas network, and improve coastal infrastructure. The Regional Action Framework highlights activities to occur across the entire region through five main activity areas (Regional Governance, Ecological Integrity and Human Well-being, Compliance and Enforcement, Cumulative Effects Assessment, and Zoning Recommendations). Funding for planning was through a public-private model that also supported the development of the plans and decision support tools (e.g. planning and mapping portal). Discussions regarding implementation began during the planning phase to ensure long-term commitment from the Partners and continuity to improve decision making and management within the MaPP area. The process design and methodology created by MaPP can be a model for planning in areas that involve multiple authorities, complex geographies and jurisdictional arrangements that can be scaled up for regional, cross border, and transboundary marine spatial planning.


Marine planning brought to life in new MaPP video

On, over, and under the waters of the North Pacific Coast, a new video from the Marine Plan Partnership (MaPP) takes you on a magnificent journey into the heart of its work. Travel along as coastal guardians gather data and monitor environmental conditions. Visit the towering kelp forests that support a wide array of biodiversity, including ecologically and culturally important species. Witness young people connecting with their marine heritage. Hear from First Nations and provincial leaders who are working together to protect, conserve, and manage this precious shared resource.

MaPP – The Benefits showcases the spectacular nature of the North Pacific Coast. It also demonstrates that the work conducted during MaPP’s first phase has created a strong foundation. Data collection, fact finding, habitat monitoring, stakeholder engagement, pilot projects, and contributions to other planning processes that are critical to successful future implementation have been established.

MaPP is now poised to move into its second phase of implementation with the goal of creating positive change in coastal communities and ocean health.

New video: Creating a Protected Area Network for the Northern Shelf Bioregion

A new video developed by the Coastal First Nations-Great Bear Initiative tells the story of collaborative work between First Nations along the North Pacific Coast, and governments of Canada and BC, to establish a network of Marine Protected Areas in the Northern Shelf Bioregion (28 minutes).

To view, click: Creating a Protected Area Network for the Northern Shelf Bioregion

MaPP researchers narrow down ideal kelp aquaculture conditions

Tlowitsis Guardian Gina Thomas holds up one of the largest kelp fronds grown during MaPP’s kelp aquaculture pilot, in Port Neville, B.C., on May 27, 2019; it measured 2.5 metres long. Photo credit: Allison Byrne

Tlowitsis Guardian Gina Thomas holds up one of the largest kelp fronds grown during MaPP’s kelp aquaculture pilot, in Port Neville, B.C., on May 27, 2019; it measured 2.5 metres long. Photo credit: Allison Byrne

The brown, translucent fronds of sugar kelp that hover below the ocean’s surface throughout coastal B.C. and beyond are gaining interest as an aquaculture product.

MaPP partners in North Vancouver Island ran a pilot study to learn more about ideal growing conditions for the brown algae, which can be eaten and used in fertilizers, biofuels, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Their next step is to determine how big a sugar kelp aquaculture operation would need to be to make a profit, and to review these findings with Nanwakolas Council member First Nations whose traditional territories would be affected and who would need to be consulted on any future aquaculture operations.

“It’s easy to grow,” said Don Tillapaugh, the Marine Plant Pilot (TMPP) project manager. In December 2018, Tillapaugh and a team of researchers wrapped single lengths of rope with twine colonized with sugar kelp spores and suspended those ropes underwater in three coastal sites off northeast Vancouver Island: Port Neville, Clio Channel, and Havannah Channel. The spores looked like brown fuzz on the ropes, and by spring, small kelp fronds were visible, mainly between two and four metres below the sea’s surface at each site. By late May, the fronds had reached their peak weight. The kelp at Port Neville grew about twice as big as fronds grown in the two channel environments, and Tillapaugh said he suspects it’s because the Port Neville waters are more nutrient-dense, fed by nearby mud flats.

“It’s a potential economic driver for some of our coastal First Nations, and something sustainable,” said Gina Thomas, a senior member of the Tlowitsis Guardian program, and a researcher with TMPP. She said commercial farming of the kelp allows greater control over conditions, as opposed to harvesting wild kelp. And, she said she hopes the research will encourage bands in the area to pursue kelp aquaculture. “You don’t need a lot of money or equipment up front,” she said.

Challenges to commercial success, however, exist.

“Growing kelp is like growing cherries,” Tillapaugh said. “It all reaches its peak at the same time and has to be harvested within about one week.”

“It’s a huge risk,” he said, noting the kelp starts to degrade after being picked, and if it’s going to be available throughout the year, it needs to be dried or otherwise processed into a product with a shelf life. “Processing plants don’t exist right now,” he said. Other potential challenges include labour availability in remote locations, transportation, and variability in growth from year to year, he said.

Most concerning, there is no well-defined large market for kelp, Tillapaugh said. While niche markets exist, including high-end restaurants who order small amounts of fresh sugar kelp, Tillipaugh warned, “We need to make sure the market is there before people get into growing it.”

In that vein, the next step for this MaPP project is to research the feasibility of kelp aquaculture, including where it could be sold, in what form, at what price, and what the start-up costs of an operation might be.

In 2016, a MaPP-funded market analysis on shellfish and kelp aquaculture reported some favourable conditions for kelp aquaculture, including that global interest in aquaculture products was steadily growing; and that while several Asian countries are the largest producers and consumers of kelp and other seaweed products, B.C.’s reputation for pristine waters attracts interest in its aquaculture products. The report also suggested that niche marketing techniques, including First Nations branding of kelp products, could bump its selling price.

Although only one company, Canadian Kelp Resources, has been growing and selling kelp in coastal B.C. (since 1982), interest in kelp aquaculture and harvesting has recently surged.

“If you think about future food shortages, kelp may become a beneficial source of sustenance,” Thomas said.

The projected cost of the nine-month TMPP project was $33,000, however, Tillapaugh said the completed project cost less. The Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast (MaPP) funded this research after identifying sugar kelp as a new potential sustainable aquaculture opportunity in the North Vancouver Island sub-region.

Sugar kelp grown at the Port Neville, B.C. test site grew twice as large as kelp grown in Clio and Havannah channels. This frond from Port Neville was weighed and photographed March 22, 2019. Photo credit: Don Tillapaugh

Sugar kelp grown at the Port Neville, B.C. test site grew twice as large as kelp grown in Clio and Havannah channels. This frond from Port Neville was weighed and photographed March 22, 2019. Photo credit: Don Tillapaugh

Five years into MaPP implementation: Expanded guardian watchmen programs are making a significant difference



Sandie Hankewich and Ernest Mason (Kitasoo/Xai’xais Fisheries Program) conducting Dungeness crab surveys. (Photo credit: Tristan Blaine, CCIRA)

For many years, guardian watchmen have been stewards for the Heiltsuk, Kitasoo/Xai’xais, Wuikinuxv, and Nuxalk Nations on the Central Coast. And for the past five years, each Nation’s program has been able to accomplish more thanks to MaPP, which funds two positions in each Nation with a specific focus on monitoring key ecosystem-based management (EBM) indicators. Guardians are now collecting data in places and on a scale that no other agency does, and the impacts are changing the way species are managed and biodiversity is protected.

“Funding from MaPP has opened up a whole new set of work and grown our capacity,” says Diana Chan, who works with the Heiltsuk Nation. “These guardians monitor EBM indicators including kelp and Dungeness crab. We’re using the Dungeness crab surveys to inform our collaborative management discussions with Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO).”

“Our program is more robust because of MaPP funding,” agrees the Kitasoo/Xai’xais Nation’s Evan Loveless. “It takes time to build capacity and there are ongoing challenges of working in remote communities. But our partnership with MaPP means we have data from across the region that we can use for more strategic management. We’re planning better and we’re moving towards improved stewardship over our marine environment.”

The Central Coast Indigenous Resource Alliance (CCIRA) supports the regional stewardship efforts of guardian watchmen programs within the four Central Coast Nations, and these programs are in turn part of broader regional network supported by the Coastal Stewardship Network. Tristan Blaine trains the MaPP-funded watchmen on how to collect data that informs ecosystem-based management.

“Having everyone collect data the same way means we have uniform information that can be used to make valid comparisons and communicate coast-wide trends,” he says. “This gives the data more power to be used for resource management decisions. And the watchmen are starting to appreciate the importance of their work; I’ve noticed a real shift in their sense of ownership of the territory and its resources.”

The data the watchmen collect are used to inform collaborative management with the provincial and federal governments. Kelp monitoring, for instance, is informing a MaPP regional kelp monitoring program. Observations of vessel traffic provide data for marine park management and use permits. Data collection assists with determining if forestry activities in the marine environment are in compliance with the conditions in the tenure agreement and Management Plan, and also helps identify hot zones for oil spills as well as for mitigation and response management. Ocean temperature and other oceanographic indicators are noted, offering insights on climate change and impacts on critical near-shore habitats such as kelp and eelgrass. Data gathering has also proved vital in protecting sacred cultural sites and good sources of food such as Pyropia (edible seaweed).

The Dungeness crab survey is one of the longest-running projects on the Central Coast. Alejandro Frid is CCIRA’s science co-ordinator and, in collaboration with Madeleine McGreer, analyzes the data watchmen collect.

“The data are being used to monitor EBM Indicators and to see if MaPP’s protection management zones are helping with conservation as well as defining where commercial and recreational fisheries are having an impact,” says Alejandro. “The Dungeness crab data were used extensively by our joint technical working group with DFO and resulted in closures to commercial fisheries intended to restore and preserve First Nations’ access to traditional foods. That’s been the most impactful study so far but we’re also on the way to applying the data collected in other areas.”

MaPP funding has also helped build bridges between the Nations and provincial agencies.

“MaPP has helped us build relationships with the Nations and we’ve gained a better understanding of the guardian watchmen programs, their concerns and focus,” says Natural Resources Officer Denise Blid. “We now have regular meetings and have worked together on a number of occasions. It’s a priority for our agency to continue to work together to strengthen these partnerships.”

Momentum is also building between watchmen and BC Parks’ officials. Peter Woods is the agency’s area supervisor on the Central Coast.

“The guardian watchmen attended ranger training in 2018 and 2019 and we held a joint workshop last year that was a great success in building trust and followed that up with another in 2019 that has helped us forge an even stronger relationship,” says Woods. “We discussed joint patrol opportunities as well as future projects; collaboration has increased substantially between BC Parks and the four Central Coast Nations. That will result in strong protection and stewardship of our resources.”

“Every year, we can point to more tangible outcomes thanks to the MaPP-funded guardians,” says CCIRA’s program director, Aaron Heidt. “The programs are gaining capacity and professionalism. There’s growing awareness with provincial agencies and that’s leading to better co-ordination and improved working relationships. Over the long-term, I see these watchmen as playing a key role in who we go to for scientific data on the Central Coast and as the face of MaPP implementation as well as marine conservation and management.”


Alec Willie (Wuikinuxv watchman) amazed at the size of the crab inside the Indigenous crab closure areas. (Photo credit: Tristan Blaine, CCIRA)

Helping the Kelp


Kelp bed in the North Vancouver Island sub-region. Credit: Nanwakolas Council.

The giant and bull kelp plants that grace British Columbia’s waters are not only beautiful to look at; they are important indicators of the province’s coastal ecosystem health. First Nations Guardians are part of the vital and exciting work taking place to learn more about them.

“Some of the areas we are studying are incredibly biodiverse,” enthuses Markus Thompson. Thompson, a marine environmental practitioner based on Quadra Island, has been working over the 2018 season with First Nations Guardians, staff from Nanwakolas Council, the provincial government, and the Hakai Institute on the first phase of a study of kelp in the waters around Northern Vancouver Island. The project was initiated and supported by the Marine Plan Partnership for the North Pacific Coast, or MaPP for short.

“Nutrient rich waters and strong currents along the northeastern coastline of Vancouver Island support a huge abundance of wildlife—whales, sea lions, and of course, kelp. But each First Nation territory also comes with unique challenges. Some territories have such an abundance of kelp that we have been unable to survey all of it,” says Thompson. “There’s a lot more to be done to ensure we have the right information to make sure we’re taking good care of these precious ecosystems.”

What’s the deal with kelp?

Thompson worked closely on this project with provincial government marine biologist Dr. Rebecca Martone. Martone, who works for the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD) describes her role this way: “My primary responsibility is supporting the implementation of the MaPP marine plans and the marine protected area network process.” The bigger picture, she explains, is supporting ways to “get good science into decision-making,” from an ecosystem-based management, or EBM, perspective.

Monitoring indicator species like kelp is an important part of planning and implementing an EBM framework, say both experts. “If you think about the objectives of EBM being effective ecosystem function and human well-being, healthy marine habitats support that,” explains Martone. “An EBM indicator program is about measuring the status of systems like marine habitats and the things that affect them, so we can manage them most effectively to meet those objectives.”


Rebecca Martone and Markus Thompson provided kelp monitoring training to Guardians. Credit: Nanawakolas Council.

Kelp, as it happens—both the giant and the bull species that grace most of British Columbia’s coastline—are excellent indicator species of marine habitat health. “If the kelp isn’t thriving, it’s likely that whatever is causing that is also affecting other parts of the ecosystem negatively. Moreover, kelp are the foundational species that support many other ecologically, culturally, and economically important species, so the loss of these habitats can have cascading effects. Understanding the status of the kelp is going to be very helpful in assessing the overall health of the region,” says Martone.

Trouble is, we don’t know what we don’t know

Aquatic plant harvesting is regulated by FLNRORD, which licenses the wild harvest and culture of aquatic species and commercial harvesting. Kelp is used commercially for everything from herbal remedies to cosmetics and fertilizer, and for medical purposes. First Nations harvest kelp on which herring have spawned, as well as for general consumption.

But the last time any studies were undertaken of these important species was in 2007, in one small part of the central coast. Scattered studies of small areas have been undertaken since the mid-1970s, but no comprehensive contemporary inventory of the coast as a whole exists.

Filling that information gap is important, says Thompson, for three reasons. Firstly, understanding the state of the species can, as we know, tell us a lot about the overall health of the marine environment on British Columbia’s coast. “Secondly, we have an opportunity to work closely with First Nations this time to undertake the monitoring and include their knowledge in the assessment of species health. Last but not least,” says Thompson, “there’s been a flurry of recent applications to harvest more kelp, but we don’t have up-to-date information on the health of the kelp stocks to inform decisions on those applications.”

The goals of the study are to bring up-to-date measurements of data like water temperature and salinity together with observations and analysis of both human activity and other

influences such as climate change, to assess impacts on and changes in the ecosystem over time. “For example,” says Thompson, “kelp productivity is generally most productive in cooler water, so as water temperature increases with climate change we may see a drop in kelp abundance. Another example is that we are seeing sea otters returning to the east coast of Vancouver Island. Sea otters eat sea urchins, which eat kelp, so that will have an impact as well.”


Guardians travel to kelp monitoring sites. Credit: Nanwakolas Council

Not least of all the study project, which began in 2018, will incorporate invaluable First Nations’ knowledge. “It’s a great fit,” says Martone. “It’s pretty challenging to monitor species that are mostly underwater, in remote locations with difficult access. Having people who know the territories inside out, who are competent in boats in these places and who understand how the tides work and the tough conditions is priceless.”

Western scientists, adds Martone, are only “beginning to understand” the value of traditional knowledge and experience. “These perspectives are not less valuable, simply different, to the way other science has looked at the issues.” Science, she says, is observational by nature, and about wanting to understand what’s happening. “So there’s a major connection to local knowledge and experienced local interpretation of what we are seeing.”

Working in partnership with First Nations

“Eelgrass was originally identified as the regional indicator species to study but in discussions with the First Nations, kelp came up as a priority as well,” notes Martone. “They told us that’s because they have been observing major declines in abundance, particularly on the north coast and around Vancouver Island. They are very concerned about the increased interest in harvesting kelp under the circumstances.”

Working with First Nations Guardians who have significant experience and knowledge of the environment and who are comfortable working in remote, challenging waterscapes, but who also don’t necessarily have a scientific qualification, demanded a partnership approach to the design of the study that was scientifically rigorous but practical and straightforward. “An important part of this work is building the capacity within the First Nations to undertake the monitoring work directly,” says Thompson. “So we designed the approach together in the best way to achieve that.”


Tier Two kelp surveys are conducted from kayaka. Credit: Markus Thompson

Getting out on—and into—the water

The team took a three-tier monitoring approach to the study project. “In tier one, we just wanted to know how much kelp there is, and where it is,” says Thompson. “The best way to do that was to go out in small boats with the Guardians, who know where to find the kelp, and a GPS system to map locations and extent of the kelp beds, and then spend a few minutes in each bed making notes about what you could see from the surface, the density, visible impacts, any other species in the beds like urchins or sea otters nearby.”

Based on the data gleaned from tier one, tier two surveys were done in a two-pronged approach: from kayaks and through drone aerial imagery. More detailed information about the extent, density and biomass of the kelp beds was gathered from this method of surface observation. Over hundreds of kilometres of coastline, the Guardians patiently counted kelp bulbs and strands in quadrants of one square metre at a time. At the same time, a start was made on gathering overhead images of the beds using drones. Tier three continued the work underwater, using scuba divers to observe what is happening below the surface.

All three tiers were deployed in 2018, says Thompson, with divers for the tier three work supplied by the Hakai Institute and the A-Tlegay Fisheries Society.

Preliminary findings confirmed that the distribution and density of kelp across all of the regions substantially different, and a relationship exists between bull kelp stipe diameter and biomass, among other things. In 2019, the work will continue, again taking on all three tiers. The partners will continue working together to refine the approach and find ways to improve the field testing methods, as well as how the data obtained will feed into longer-term planning and ecosystem management, including harvesting controls.


Tier Three surveys are conducted underwater by divers. Credit: Ryan Millar

Putting power in the hands of the First Nations

An important element will be continuing to work with the Guardians to increase their capacity to undertake the monitoring work themselves, including training and qualifications in underwater work. “I think this is one of the biggest benefits of this work so far,” says Thompson. “It’s so important that the First Nations have access to this information to inform their decisions about taking care of their territories based on our collective knowledge and work.”

Thompson also notes, that requires commitment on the part of the non-First Nations partners to stay the course: “You can’t just parachute in and then stop,” he says firmly. “We have to commit to the relationship and seeing through the work, and that isn’t completed when these short-term studies are finished. That’s a long-term commitment.”

Fortunately, that seems to be the collective view. “Working with the Guardians has been such a gift for me,” says Martone. “Their knowledge is so critical to the work we do together. The fact they have invited me out on the water and shared their perspectives with me is incredibly rewarding. I hope they feel the same way!”

The long view

Gina Thomas, senior Tlowitsis Guardian, certainly does.” I think this work is going to be very helpful,” says Thomas. “It’s also been very helpful to connect directly with the decision-makers in the province. That’s been a really exciting part of this year’s experience.” Thomas says you also have to take a long-term view: that in the bigger picture, it is all about managing the kelp and the ecosystems for better health and the well-being of all concerned.

When you get out on the water with people from the government and other partners First Nations work with, says Thomas, and everyone sees what it is like in these beautiful, remote places, “we find we share the same passions and desires for good outcomes for them. We have the same information, we’re on the same page, and it makes it easy to make good decisions.”


Gina Thomas monitors kelp. Credit: Nanwakolas Council

New MaPP Study Offers Meta-View of Climate Impacts


MaPP’s new Regional Climate Change Assessment study offers a bird’s-eye view of current projections of how climate change will play out across MaPP sub-regions. This map – one of dozens in the report – shows locations of First Nations fishing infrastructure in relationship to regional variations (up to 72 cm by the end of this century) in sea-level rise under a “high” scenario of global emissions. Source: “Regional Climate Change Assessment: Projected Climate Changes, Impacts and Recommendations for Assessing Vulnerability and Risk across the Canadian North Pacific Coast.”


A recently completed MaPP study provides the clearest picture yet on how climate change is poised to affect communities and ecosystems.

Titled “Regional Climate Change Assessment: Projected Climate Changes, Impacts and Recommendations for Assessing Vulnerability and Risk across the Canadian North Pacific Coast,”  the study was completed in February 2018 by Charlotte Whitney and Tugce Conger, Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions fellows and PhD candidates from the University of Victoria’s School of Environmental Studies and UBC’s Institute for Resources, Environment, and Sustainability.

To do it, Whitney and Conger systematically examined hundreds of peer-reviewed scientific publications and studies undertaken by government, private firms, and environmental non-government organizations. To get a sense of work in progress, they also interviewed other key researchers in B.C. about relevant, ongoing projects.

“I was surprised by how much work has been done, but just not always consistently across the region,” Whitney says of the process. “Pulling it all together like this showed there is a lot we can use to make better management decisions at multiple scales, and a lot of actions that can be really effective in supporting communities within the MaPP region in coming years.”

The resulting 135-page synthesis affirms that site-specific changes to ecosystems on the B.C. coast are already underway now, and will deepen in coming decades. Air and ocean surface temperatures will continue to rise, as will sea levels—averaging about 20 to 30 cm by 2100. Ocean water will become less salty, more acidic, and lower in dissolved oxygen. Winds, waves, storms, flooding, and extreme weather events are expected to become more intense. Snowmelt will keep happening earlier and faster, making for more intense freshets (the sudden rise of water level in a river due to melting snow or ice) and hotter, drier summers in some regions.

The researchers expect these phenomena to have far-reaching effects on the ecosystems, economies, and cultures of MaPP communities. For example, the geographic ranges of key species of salmon, herring, shellfish, and crustaceans may shift. Communities and critical marine infrastructure will be more vulnerable to sea-level rise and extreme weather events. Many cultural sites, valuable in their own right but also as proof of historical First Nations presence, will be more vulnerable to erosion and loss; though the vulnerability will vary across the sub-regions. Pollutants that have been stored in glacial ice for centuries will be released as glaciers melt, potentially impacting habitat.

One unique aspect of this study—and in line with its intent—is that it drills down into existing data to explore how climate change will play out over the coming decades at regional and sub-regional scales. For example, it indicates that the northeast coast of Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, is especially sensitive to sea-level rise, but that warmer and longer summers may also bring new opportunities in tourism. On the Central Coast, MaPP communities are less vulnerable to sea-level rise than other regions, but have a greater proportion of documented cultural sites at risk and can expect a major decline (32%-49% decline by 2050) in herring—a key source of food, income, and cultural practice.

The study’s appendices offer a treasure trove of practical information. For example, readers can look up key species in a table that lists the climate change factors they are vulnerable to and how they are likely to be affected. A set of colour-coded maps illustrates communities’ varying sensitivities, under different emissions scenarios, to factors such as changing salinity and sea-level rise.

Equally useful is the study’s highlighting of locally relevant but still unanswered climate-change questions—such as the impacts of ocean acidification, and the ways that warming waters, by harbouring new marine diseases and invasive species, will change marine ecosystems. These unanswered questions will help guide future climate change research.

During the research, Whitney and Conger invited feedback from key MaPP team members—like Rebecca Martone, a Victoria-based marine biologist with B.C.’s Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development.

“This study really helps us to put the puzzle pieces together in a way that hasn’t been done before,” enthuses Martone, who is on the MaPP technical team. “It helps us identify where we have more certainty in projected impacts, so we can prioritize actions to take, and where we need more information. And it really strengthens the scientific foundation for the work of MaPP.”

For John Bones, First Nations co-lead for MaPP implementation in the North Vancouver Island sub-region, the study offers strong motivation for proactive effort. “The most valuable insight from this study for First Nations communities … is probably that climate change impacts on ocean characteristics—like salinity and water temperature—are going to affect ocean-based cultures and traditions,” he reflects. “Each community needs to start developing an ‘action plan’ for both the threats and opportunities that might result.”

Whitney agrees, and emphasizes the wisdom of framing community conversations less in terms of vulnerabilities and more around communities’ adaptive capacity—“the latent potential of people and ecosystems to adapt”—and proactive planning. To that end, the researchers included recommendations for high-level planning principles and an appendix about adaptation measures that communities can start taking now.

“Building on initiatives that are already involving communities in planning, management, and capacity development—like the Guardian Watchmen program—would be really valuable,” adds Whitney. “It could turn this into a story about potential.”

As the MaPP team prepares to share study findings with MaPP communities, Whitney and Conger have gone on to complete a second, complementary literature review, which evaluates frameworks and tools for carrying out vulnerability and risk assessments for the MaPP region—work that will be undertaken next year.


Rising sea level and increased storm surge can subject archeological sites to erosion or inundation. This map shows that some MaPP regions are more vulnerable to this than others. The North Vancouver Island sub-region, for example, has the highest proportion of its documented archeological sites at risk.
Source: “Regional Climate Change Assessment: Projected Climate Changes, Impacts and Recommendations for Assessing Vulnerability and Risk across the Canadian North Pacific Coast.”

Report Citation: Whitney, Charlotte, and Tugce Conger. 2019. “Northern Shelf Bioregion Climate Change Assessment: Projected Climate Changes, Sectoral Impacts, and Recommendations for Adaptation Strategies Across the Canadian North Pacific Coast.” MarXiv. May 3.

Read the report online here.